Šilumos siurblių veikimo principas

Šilumos siurblių veikimo principas

ŠILUMOS SIURBLYS, IMANTIS ŠILUMĄ IŠ DIRVOŽEMIO, UOLIENŲ, VANDENS ARBA ORO, GALI SMARKIAI SUMAŽINTI JŪSŲ SĄNAUDAS BŪSTO ŠILDYMUI AR VANDENS PAŠILDYMUI.

Šilumos siurblys veikia tokiu pat principu kaip ir šaldytuvas. Šaldytuve šiluma imama iš šaldytuvo vidaus ir atiduodama į aplinką šaldytuvo gale. Šilumos siurblys pasisavina šilumą iš dirvožemio, uolienų, oro arba vandens ir paskirsto ją į Jūsų namus. Dėl saulės šilumos, esančios uolienose, dirvožemyje, ore ar vandenyje kiekviena kilovatvalandė (kWh) elektros energijos, reikalingos siurblio darbui, virsta 3-5 kilovatvalandėmis šilumos name.


ŠILUMOS SIURBLIŲ NAUDINGUMO KOEFICIENTAI

Tradiciškai energijos vartojimo efektyvumui įvertinti naudojami koeficientai EER (vėsinimo) ir COP (šildymo). Šie koeficientai parodo, kiek pagamintos vėsos ar šilumos (kW) tenka 1 kW sunaudotos elektros energijos. Pagrindinis šių rodiklių trūkumas yra tas, kad jie visų gamintojų standartiškai yra matuojami prie vienos lauko oro temperatūros – EER, esant lauko oro temperatūrai +35oC, COP – esant +7oC. Nuo 2014 m. (2013 m yra pereinamieji) įvedami naujieji sezoniniai įrenginių energijos vartojimo efektyvumo koeficientai -SEER (vėsinimui) ir SCOP (šildymui). Šie naujieji koeficientai tiksliau atspindi įrenginių efektyvumą, kadangi tai vidutiniai dydžiai ir skaičiuojami keturiuose temperatūriniuose taškuose (žr. struktūrizuotas schemas žemiau).


Sezoninis energijos vartojimo efektyvumo koeficientas (SEER) – bendras įrenginio enerartojimo efektyvumo koeficientas per visą vėsinimo sezoną, apskaičiuojamas norminį metinį vėsinimo poreikį padalijant iš metinių elektros energijos sąnaudų vėsinimui.

Sezoninis veiksmingumo koeficientas (SCOP) – bendras įrenginio veiksmingumo koeficientas, atitinkantis visą nustatytą šildymo sezoną ir apskaičiuojamas norminį metinį šildymo poreikį padalijant iš metinių elektros energijos sąnaudų šildymui.


AEROTERMINIAI ORAS-ORAS ŠILUMOS SIURBLIAI

Šio tipo šilumos siurblius sudaro išorinis įrenginys ir viena arba daugiau vidinių dalių. Išorinis įrenginys ima šilumą iš lauko oro ir perduoda ją viduje esančioms dalims, kurios, veikiamos ventiliatoriaus, paskleidžia tą šilumą viduje. Radiatorių su šio tipo siurbliais sušildyti neįmanoma. Nukritus lauko temperatūrai, sumažeja siurblio efektyvumas. Oro siurblys paprastai gali sutaupyti apie 30-50 procentų šildymo išlaidų (neskaičiuojant vandens šildymo išlaidų). Šio tipo šilumos siurbliai yra puikus kitų šildymo sistemų papildymas, pavyzdžiui tiesioginio veikimo elektrinio šildymo, židinių, krosnelių, dujinių katilų. Kad sutaupytumėte kaip įmanoma daugiau, svarbu, kad jau esama namo šildymo sistema būtų tinkamai įdiegta, o termodinaminiai davikliai veiktų tinkamai. Siekiant sutaupyti, taip pat labai svarbi vieta, kurioje bus patalpintas šilumos siurblys. Namo išplanavimas turetų būti tinkamas paskirstyti šilumą visuose kambariuose vienodai efektyviai. Vasarą šie šilumos siurbliai dažnai naudojami oro kondicionavimui bei drėgmės sumažinimui, tačiau tuomet sumažėja energijos taupymas. Energijos taupymo požiūriu, šie siurbliai, lyginant su kitomis karšto oro siurblių sistemomis, yra kur kas pigesnė investicija. Svarbu yra tai, kad šie siurbliai valo ir gaivina Jūsų namų orą, taip jį pagerindami.


AEROTERMINIAI ORAS-VANDUO ŠILUMOS SIURBLIAI

Šilumos siurbliai ima šilumą iš lauko panašiu principu kaip oras-oras siurbliai, bet užuot orą pavertę šiluma, jie šildo vandenį. Oras-vanduo šilumos siurbliai gali šildyti tiek vandenį, tiek orą, tiekdami šilumą į namus per šildomų grindų sistemas bei radiatorius. Šilumos siurbliai, sumontuoti išorėje, ima šilumą iš oro. Ši energija sušildo vandenį talpoje, esančią patalpoje. Oras-vanduo šilumos siurbliai gali sutaupyti apytiksliai 50-60% namui šildyti reikalingos šilumos bei karšto vandens per metus. Netgi esant žemesnei lauko temperatūrai, sutaupoma beveik tiek pat energijos. Įrengti oras-vanduo šilumos siurblį dažniausiai kainuoja mažiau negu įrengti kitokį geoterminį siurblį. Oras-vanduo šilumos siurblys sunaudoja tiek pat energijos, kiek ir geoterminiai šilumos siurbliai. Be to, Jums nereikia gręžti ieškant šilumos šaltinio, o tai reiškia, kad oras-vanduo siurblių įrengimas kur kas papra

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